E-ISSN 2578-7322
 

Original Research 


Potential Role of Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and Adhesion Molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Qassim region, KSA

Manal Basyouni, Maha Ahmed, Hisham Ismail, Iman Esmat.

Abstract
Background: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) is powerful and independent risk factors for coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Accelerated atherosclerosis is the major vascular complication of diabetes, constituting the main cause of morbidity and mortality in this common metabolic disorder. The role of oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in diabetic complications as atherogenesis is unclear and available studies are contradictory.
Objectives: The current study was conducted to investigate the pathological role of oxLDL and cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) and their clinical impact in type 2 DM patients.
Patients and Methods: The serum levels of ox-LDL and VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Their levels were correlated to glycemic status and lipid profile in 60 type 2 diabetic patients compared to 25 healthy subjects.
Results: The current study revealed a significant higher ox-LDL and VCAM-1 levels in diabetic patients compared to healthy group, with significant higher levels of oxLDL in uncontrolled diabetes compared to controlled diabetes. The elevation of ox-LDL in DM patients (p <0.001) was more profound than LDL elevation (P<0.05). Ox-LDL was correlated positively with glycemic index (HbA1c and FBG), lipid profile (TG, LDL and atherogenic index), blood pressure (systole and diastole) and with VCAM-1. Moreover, VCAM-1 was positively correlated to HbA1c, cholesterol and ICAM-1.
Conclusion: The elevated levels of ox-LDL and VCAM-1 in DM versus controls and their positive correlation suggest the potential role of ox-LDL as a possible etiological and prognostic marker for atherosclerosis. Moreover anti- ox-LDL drugs may be tried as new therapeutic agents to minimize atherosclerotic complications of DM.

Key words: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Oxidized LDL, Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1)


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Manal Basyouni
Articles by Maha Ahmed
Articles by Hisham Ismail
Articles by Iman Esmat
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 3219
Downloaded: 764
Cited: 0

REFERENCES
1. Amitie R, Agrawal NK: Atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus: Role of inflammation: Indian Atherosclerosis. American Society of Hematology 2007; 1: 436.
2. Ugwu C, Ezeanyika L, Daikwo M, Amana R. Lipid profile of a population of diabetic patients attending Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation Clinic. African Journal of Biochemistry Research 2009; 3:066-069.
3. Stenina, OI. Regulation of vascular genes by glucose.Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11(18):2367-81. [DOI via Crossref]   
4. Ehara S, Ueda M, Naruko T, Haze K, Matsuo T, Ogami M, Ikura Y, Itabe H, Komatsu R, Yoshiyama M, Takeuchi K, Yoshikawa J. Pathophysiological role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in plaque instability in coronary artery diseases. J Diabetes Complications. 2002 Jan-Feb;16(1):60-4. [DOI via Crossref]   
5. Raterman1, Nurmohamed M, Simsek S. Endothelial Dysfunction, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in Diabetes Mellitus. Mediators Inflamm. 2010 (15): 792393. [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
6. Ishigaki Y, Oka Y, Katagiri H. Circulating oxidized LDL: a biomarker and a pathogenic factor. CurrOpinLipidol. 2009 Oct;20(5):363-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
7. Madan B, Prasad AK, Parmar VS, Ghosh B. 1,4-dihydroxyxanthone modulates the adhesive property of endothelial cells by inhibiting intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Mar 15;12(6):1431-7. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
8. Boulbou MS, Koukoulis GN, Makri ED, Petinaki EA, Gourgoulianis KI, Germenis AE. Circulating adhesion molecules levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension.Int J Cardiol. 2005 Jan;98(1):39-44. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
9. Choi JS, Kang SW, Li J, Kim JL, Bae JY, Kim DS, Shin SY, Jun JG, Wang MH, Kang YH. Blockade of Oxidized LDL-Triggered Endothelial Apoptosis by Quercetin and Rutin through Differential Signaling Pathways Involving JAK2. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Mar 11;57(5):2079-86. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
10. Trinder P. Determination of blood glucose using an oxidaseperoxidase system with a non-carcinogenic chromogen. J ClinPathol. 1969 Mar;22(2):158-61 . [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
11. Abraham EC, Huff TA, Cope ND, Wilson JB Jr, Bransome ED Jr, Huisman TH. Determination of the glycosylated hemoglobins (Hb A1) with a new microcolumnprocedure.Suitability of the technique for assessing the clinical management of diabetes mellitus.Diabetes. 1978 Sep;27(9):931-7. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
12. Richmond W. "Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clin Chem. 1973 Dec;19(12):1350-6. [Pubmed]   
13. Burstein M, Scholnick HR, Morfin R. Rapid method for the isolation of lipoproteins from human serum by precipitation with polyanions. J Lipid Res. 1970 Nov;11(6):583-95 [Pubmed]   
14. Siedel J, Hägele EO, Ziegenhorn J, Wahlefeld AW. Reagent for the enzymatic determination of serum total cholesterol with improved lipolytic efficiency.Clin Chem. 1983 Jun;29(6):1075-80 [Pubmed]   
15. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972 Jun;18(6):499-502 [Pubmed]   
16. Dobiásová M, Frohlich J. The plasma parameter log (TG/HDL-C) as an atherogenic index: correlation with lipoprotein particle size and esterification rate in apoB-lipoprotein-depleted plasma (FERHDL). ClinBiochem. 2001 Oct;34(7):583-8. [17] Hamed S, Brenner B, Abassi Z, Aharon A, Daoud D, Roguin A. Hyperglycemia and oxidized-LDL exert a deleterious effect on endothelial progenitor cell migration in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thromb Res. 2010 Sep;126(3):166-74.
17. Davì G, Falco A, Patrono C. Lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2005 Jan-Feb;7(1-2):256-68 [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
18. Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM. Mechanismslinking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.Nature. 2006 Dec 14;444(7121):840-6. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
19. Ang KP, Tan HK, Selvaraja M, Kadir AA, Somchit MN, Akim AM, Zakaria ZA, Ahmad Z. Cryptotanshinone attenuates in vitro oxLDL-induced pre-lesional atherosclerotic events. Planta Med. 2011 Nov;77(16):1782-7 [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
20. Goyal T, Mitra S, Khaidakov M, Wang X, Singla S, Ding Z, Liu S, Mehta JL. Current Concepts of the Role of Oxidized LDL Receptors in Atherosclerosis.CurrAtheroscler Rep. 2012 Jan 29 [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
21. Matough FA, Budin SB, Hamid ZA, Alwahaibi N, Mohamed J. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in diabetic complications. Sultan QaboosUniv Med J. 2012 Feb;12(1):5-18 . [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
22. Chen CY, Yi L, Jin X, Zhang T, Fu YJ, Zhu JD, Mi MT, Zhang QY, Ling WH, Yu B. Inhibitory effect of delphinidin on monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein via ROS/p38MAPK/NF-?B pathway. Cell BiochemBiophys. 2011 Nov;61(2):337-48 [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
23. Williams CM, Maitin V, Jackson KG. Triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein- gene interactions in endothelial cells.BiochemSoc Trans. 2004 Dec;32(6):994-8 [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
24. Mulvihill NT, Foley JB, Murphy RT, Pate G, Crean PA, Walsh M. Enhanced endothelial activation in diabetic patients with unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Diabet Med.; 2001 Dec;18(12):979-83. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
25. El-Mesallamy H, Suwailem S, Hamdy N. Evaluation of C-Reactive Protein, Endothelin-1, Adhesion Molecule(s), and Lipids as Inflammatory Markers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Mediators Inflamm. 2007;2007:73635. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
26. Li D, Liu L, Chen H, Sawamura T, Ranganathan S, Mehta JL. LOX-1 mediates oxidized LDL-induced the expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Circulation. 2003 Feb 4;107(4):612-7 [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Manal Basyouni, Maha Ahmed, Hisham Ismail , Iman Esmat. Potential Role of Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and Adhesion Molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Qassim region, KSA. A J Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 48-54. doi:10.5455/jib.20120417052458


Web Style

Manal Basyouni, Maha Ahmed, Hisham Ismail , Iman Esmat. Potential Role of Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and Adhesion Molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Qassim region, KSA. http://www.ajpbp.com/?mno=17606 [Access: November 18, 2018]. doi:10.5455/jib.20120417052458


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Manal Basyouni, Maha Ahmed, Hisham Ismail , Iman Esmat. Potential Role of Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and Adhesion Molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Qassim region, KSA. A J Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 48-54. doi:10.5455/jib.20120417052458



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Manal Basyouni, Maha Ahmed, Hisham Ismail , Iman Esmat. Potential Role of Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and Adhesion Molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Qassim region, KSA. A J Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. (2012), [cited November 18, 2018]; 1(1): 48-54. doi:10.5455/jib.20120417052458



Harvard Style

Manal Basyouni, Maha Ahmed, Hisham Ismail , Iman Esmat (2012) Potential Role of Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and Adhesion Molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Qassim region, KSA. A J Physiol Biochem Pharmacol, 1 (1), 48-54. doi:10.5455/jib.20120417052458



Turabian Style

Manal Basyouni, Maha Ahmed, Hisham Ismail , Iman Esmat. 2012. Potential Role of Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and Adhesion Molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Qassim region, KSA. American Journal of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, 1 (1), 48-54. doi:10.5455/jib.20120417052458



Chicago Style

Manal Basyouni, Maha Ahmed, Hisham Ismail , Iman Esmat. "Potential Role of Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and Adhesion Molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Qassim region, KSA." American Journal of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology 1 (2012), 48-54. doi:10.5455/jib.20120417052458



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Manal Basyouni, Maha Ahmed, Hisham Ismail , Iman Esmat. "Potential Role of Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and Adhesion Molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Qassim region, KSA." American Journal of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology 1.1 (2012), 48-54. Print. doi:10.5455/jib.20120417052458



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Manal Basyouni, Maha Ahmed, Hisham Ismail , Iman Esmat (2012) Potential Role of Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and Adhesion Molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Qassim region, KSA. American Journal of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, 1 (1), 48-54. doi:10.5455/jib.20120417052458





Most Viewed Articles
  • Slippery Elm, its Biochemistry, and use as a Complementary and Alternative Treatment for Laryngeal Irritation
    Christopher R Watts, Bernard rousseau
    J Investig Biochem. 2012; 1(1): 17-23
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20120417052415

  • Selected disease fundamentals based on the unified cell bioenergetics
    Andrzej Kasperski, Renata Kasperska
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(2): 93-100
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20130227041230

  • Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in Helicobacter pylori infected patients in Jordan.
    Saad Abed Aljalil Alfawaeir, Mohammad Basim Abuzaid
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 21-25
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20121215061954

  • Serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in Helicobacter pylori infected patients
    Saad Al-Fawaeir, Mohammad Basim Abu Zaid
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 32-36
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20121225015606

  • Molecular Characterization of Alpha and Beta Thalassemia in Yemeni Sickle Cell Disease Children
    Saeed Thabet Nasher, Mohammed Wael Abu Ghoush
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 44-52
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20130105022014

  • Hepatoprotective and In vivo Anti-oxidant Activity of Costus afer Leaf Extracts against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
    God'swill Nduka Anyasor, Kofoworola O. Odunsanya, Audrey C. Ibeneme
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 53-61
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20130301030851

  • Correlation Between Elevated Hepatic Enzymes & High-Sensitivity Crp in Metabolic Syndrome.
    Al-Rubaye Faisal, Shakir Mahmood, Jumah Kadhum
    J Investig Biochem. 2012; 1(1): 6-11
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20120528094732

  • Serum Lipid Profile of Breast Cancer Patients in Kashmir
    Showkat Ahmad Bhat, Manzoor R Mir, Sabhiya Majid, Ahmad Arif Reshi, Ishraq Husain, Tehseen Hassan, Hilal Ahmad
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 26-31
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20121125075314

  • Alteration of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress in elderly patient.
    Seema L. Jawalekar1, Anil K. Bhutey2, Aarti Karnik3, Vasant T. Surve4
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 37-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20130129093838

  • Potential Role of Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and Adhesion Molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Qassim region, KSA
    Manal Basyouni, Maha Ahmed, Hisham Ismail , Iman Esmat
    J Investig Biochem. 2012; 1(1): 48-54
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20120417052458

  • Most Downloaded
  • Slippery Elm, its Biochemistry, and use as a Complementary and Alternative Treatment for Laryngeal Irritation
    Christopher R Watts, Bernard rousseau
    J Investig Biochem. 2012; 1(1): 17-23
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20120417052415

  • Selected disease fundamentals based on the unified cell bioenergetics
    Andrzej Kasperski, Renata Kasperska
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(2): 93-100
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20130227041230

  • Serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in Helicobacter pylori infected patients
    Saad Al-Fawaeir, Mohammad Basim Abu Zaid
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 32-36
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20121225015606

  • Alteration of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress in elderly patient.
    Seema L. Jawalekar1, Anil K. Bhutey2, Aarti Karnik3, Vasant T. Surve4
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 37-43
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20130129093838

  • Serum Lipid Profile of Breast Cancer Patients in Kashmir
    Showkat Ahmad Bhat, Manzoor R Mir, Sabhiya Majid, Ahmad Arif Reshi, Ishraq Husain, Tehseen Hassan, Hilal Ahmad
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 26-31
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20121125075314

  • Hepatoprotective and In vivo Anti-oxidant Activity of Costus afer Leaf Extracts against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
    God'swill Nduka Anyasor, Kofoworola O. Odunsanya, Audrey C. Ibeneme
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 53-61
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20130301030851

  • Evaluation of glycated albumin and microalbuminuria as early risk markers of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Suresh Babu Kondaveeti, Ivvala Anand Shaker
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(2): 127-131
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20130507061739

  • Comparative study of ischemia modified albumin and nitric oxide in hyperthyroidism
    Monica Verma1, Kiran Dahiya1, Veena Singh Ghalaut1, Abhishek Soni2, Jagjeet Singh3, Vasudha Dhupper1
    J Investig Biochem. 2014; 3(1): 17-20
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20130707090209

  • Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in Helicobacter pylori infected patients in Jordan.
    Saad Abed Aljalil Alfawaeir, Mohammad Basim Abuzaid
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 21-25
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20121215061954

  • Serum lipid profile in Helicobacter pylori infected patients
    Saad Al-Fawaeir, Mohammad Abu Zaid, Ayman Abu Awad, Baker Alabedallat
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(2): 132-135
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20130603084538

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Biochemical study on the impact of Nigella sativa and virgin olive oils on cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity in rats
    Eman Taha Mohammed, Khalid Shaban Hashem, Mahmoud Ramadan Abdel Rheim
    J Investig Biochem. 2014; 3(2): 71-78
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20140716041908
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Study and Characterization of the Antioxidant Activity of the Inclusion Complex of Apigenin with β-Cyclodextrin and HP-β-Cyclodextrin in solution
    Jinxia Li
    J Investig Biochem. 2014; 3(3): 107-111
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20140905032504
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Slippery Elm, its Biochemistry, and use as a Complementary and Alternative Treatment for Laryngeal Irritation
    Christopher R Watts, Bernard rousseau
    J Investig Biochem. 2012; 1(1): 17-23
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20120417052415
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Alterations in plasma lipids, glutathione and homocysteine in relation to dietary copper in rats
    Magda A. Megahed1, Kamel M. A. Hassanin2, Ibrahim M. I. Youssef3, Abdul Baset A. Elfghi4, Kamal A. Amin2
    J Investig Biochem. 2014; 3(1): 21-25
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20130716075753
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Quercetin, a natural phytochemical and antioxidant protects against sodium azide-induced hepatic and splenic oxidative stress in rats
    Oluwatobi Temitope Somade, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye, Michael Oluwayemi Adeyeye, Gbenga Daniel Fabunmi, Olakunle Opeoluwa Idowu, Funmilayo Oluwaseun Badmus, Barakat Oluwatoyin Salaudeen
    J Investig Biochem. 2015; 4(3): 69-74
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20151220014400
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • A New Marker For The Diagnoss Of Sepsis: Presepsin
    Mehmet Agilli, Irfan Sener, Fatih Yesildal, Tevfik Honca, Ibrahim Aydin, Emin Ozgur Akgul, Halil Yaman
    J Investig Biochem. 2012; 1(1): 55-57
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20120521073837
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The role of urinary 5- hydroxyindoleacetic acid determination in diagnosis of acute appendicitis
    Hamid Hindi Sarhan, Aseel Fawzi Hatroosh, Amina Hamed Alobaidi
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 1-5
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20121026084836
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Serum Lipid Profile of Breast Cancer Patients in Kashmir
    Showkat Ahmad Bhat, Manzoor R Mir, Sabhiya Majid, Ahmad Arif Reshi, Ishraq Husain, Tehseen Hassan, Hilal Ahmad
    J Investig Biochem. 2013; 2(1): 26-31
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20121125075314
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Phytochemical content of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves and toxicological effect of its aqueous leaf extract in Wistar rats
    Doris Akachukwu, Polycarp Nnacheta Okafor, Chiedozie O Ibegbulem
    J Investig Biochem. 2014; 3(1): 26-31
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20140504023102
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Myeloperoxidase, Malondialdehyde and serum Lipids in type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Mohamedi Begum, Ashok Kumar J., Hilda Priya D'Souza, Sushith Sushith, Prathima M.B, Reshma S., Shashikala M.D, Manjula Anil, Suriyan S Nair, Kavitha Ashok Kumar
    J Investig Biochem. 2015; 4(1): 13-17
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jib.20150331115356
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]